In 1963, the nation established a Federal Republic, with Azikiwe as its first president. Nigeria made history by qualifying the first bobsled team for the Winter Olympics from Africa when their women's two-man team qualified for the bobsled competition at the XXIII Olympic Winter Games in Pyeongchang, South Korea. seventh most populous country in the world, pacifying the heartland of the Sokoto Caliphate, National Council of Nigeria and the Cameroons, Nigerian military juntas of 1966–79 and 1983–99, Igbos in Northern cities suffered persecution, February 1976 coup against Nigeria's government, Nigerian military juntas of 1966–1979 and 1983–1999, Ethnic violence for control over the oil-producing Niger Delta, Movement for the Actualization of the Sovereign State of Biafra, Economic Community of West African States, Organization of the Petroleum Exporting Countries, treaty on the Prohibition of Nuclear Weapons, Nigerian Space Research and Development Agency, Nigeria is the seventh most populous country in the world, Learn how and when to remove this template message, Lord's Chosen Charismatic Revival Movement, The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints. Senate President Nwafor Orizu handed over government control to the Army, then under the command of another Igbo officer, General Johnson Aguiyi-Ironsi. In order to increase the number of universities in Nigeria from 129 to 138 the Federal Government gave nine new private universities their licences in May 2015. It was coordinated by key officers of the Nigerian military and led to the overthrow of the Second Nigerian Republic and the installation of Major General Muhammadu Buhari as Head of State. In reality, money is taken out instead, and/or large fees (which seem small in comparison with the imaginary wealth he awaits) are deducted. Quite often they are plucked or cut, and fed either as fresh or conserved fodders. , Upon gaining independence in 1960, Nigeria made African unity the centerpiece of its foreign policy and played a leading role in the fight against the apartheid government in South Africa. Football is largely considered Nigeria's national sport and the country has its own Premier League of football. British missionaries expanded their operations and traveled further inland. Its southern coast is on the Gulf of Guinea in the Atlantic Ocean. Omissions? Andrew F. Cooper, Agata Antkiewicz and Timothy M. Shaw, 'Lessons from/for BRICSAM about South-North Relations at the Start of the 21st Century: Economic Size Trumps All Else? In the period before 1983 election, a report of experts prepared by the National Institute of Policy and Strategic Studies showed that only the 1959 and 1979 elections were held without systematic rigging. Nigeria is classified as a mixed economy emerging market. The country has a total of 129 universities registered by NUC among which federal and state government own 40 and 39 respectively while 50 universities are privately owned. Nigerian feasts are colourful and lavish, while aromatic market and roadside snacks cooked on barbecues or fried in oil are plentiful and varied.. The vast landlocked empire connected the East with the West Sudan region and made inroads down south conquering parts of the Oyo Empire (modern-day Kwara), and advanced towards the Yoruba heartland of Ibadan, with the goal of reaching the Atlantic Ocean. The coastal areas are drained by short rivers that flow into the Gulf of Guinea. Nigeria is trying to reach the Sustainable Development Goal Number 1, which is to end poverty in all its forms by 2030. Rivers draining the area north of the Niger-Benue trough include the Sokoto, the Kaduna, the Gongola, and the rivers draining into Lake Chad. , Nigerian cuisine, like West African cuisine in general, is known for its richness and variety. In November 2008, Nigeria's music scene (and that of Africa) received international attention when MTV hosted the continent's first African music awards show in Abuja. Nigeria has remained a key player in the international oil industry since the 1970s, and maintains membership in Organization of the Petroleum Exporting Countries (OPEC), which it joined in July 1971. Nigeria has a space satellite that is monitored at the Nigerian National Space Research and Development Agency Headquarters in Abuja. However, a major breakthrough came in December 2014, when it was reported that Nigeria had recorded zero polio cases in six months. Nigeria is not only large in area—larger than the U.S. state of Texas—but also Africa’s most populous country.  Nigeria lies between latitudes 4° and 14°N, and longitudes 2° and 15°E. The victim is talked into exchanging bank account information on the premise that the money will be transferred to them and they will get to keep a cut. In the north, the incessant fighting amongst the Hausa city-states and the decline of the Bornu Empire gave rise to the Fulani people gaining headway into the region. Nigeria is also a member of the informal MINT group of countries, which are widely seen as the globe's next emerging economies, as well as the "Next Eleven" economies, which are set to become among the biggest in the world.  The 2010 film Ijé by Chineze Anyaene, overtook The Figurine to become the highest grossing Nigerian film; a record it held for four years, until it was overtaken in 2014 by Half of a Yellow Sun(2013). Azikiwe replaced the colonial governor-general in November 1960. Critically acclaimed writers of a younger generation include Adaobi Tricia Nwaubani, Chris Abani, Sefi Atta, Helon Habila, Helen Oyeyemi, Nnedi Okorafor, Kachi A. Ozumba, Sarah Ladipo Manyika, and Chika Unigwe.  The Nigerian Tourism Development Corporation has been working with the states to upgrade the traditional festivals, which may become important sources of tourism revenue.  In the 2014 ebola outbreak, Nigeria was the first country to effectively contain and eliminate the Ebola threat that was ravaging three other countries in the West African region, the unique method of contact tracing employed by Nigeria became an effective method later used by countries such as the United States, when ebola threats were discovered. This remnant became known as "Sokoto Sultanate Council". Until 1975 it was the capital of Lagos state, and until 1991 it was the federal capital of Nigeria. There are early historical references by medieval Arab and Muslim historians and geographers which refer to the Kanem-Bornu Empire as the region's major centre for Islamic civilization. It is a federal republic comprising 36 states and the Federal Capital Territory, where the capital, Abuja, is located.  The primary objectives of the Nigeriasat-1 were: to give early warning signals of environmental disaster; to help detect and control desertification in the northern part of Nigeria; to assist in demographic planning; to establish the relationship between malaria vectors and the environment that breeds malaria and to give early warning signals on future outbreaks of meningitis using remote sensing technology; to provide the technology needed to bring education to all parts of the country through distant learning; and to aid in conflict resolution and border disputes by mapping out state and International borders.  Nigeria's economy is the largest in Africa and the 24th largest in the world, worth almost $450 billion and $1 trillion in terms of nominal GDP and purchasing power parity, respectively. A large number of Sunni Muslims are members of Sufi brotherhoods.  The vast majority of Muslims in Nigeria are Sunni belonging to Maliki school of jurisprudence; however, a sizeable minority also belongs to Shafi Madhhab. , Nigeria has been pervaded by political corruption. Most of the energy comes from traditional biomass and waste, which account for 83% of total primary production. In 1995, an estimated 21,000 Nigerian doctors were practising in the United States alone, which is about the same as the number of doctors working in the Nigerian public service. All major parties have practised vote-rigging and other means of coercion to remain competitive.  The rioting erupted after Muslims in the country reacted in anger to comments made by a newspaper reporter. The Jos Plateau rises almost in the centre of the country; it consists of extensive lava surfaces dotted with numerous extinct volcanoes.  Evidence of iron smelting has also been excavated at sites in the Nsukka region of southeast Nigeria: dating to 2000 BC at the site of Lejja (Uzomaka 2009) and to 750 BC and at the site of Opi. Ajayi, Kunle (2007).  Several startups like Paystack, Interswitch, Bolt and Piggyvest are leveraging technology to solve issues across different sectors. As confraternities have extensive connections with political and military figures, they offer excellent alumni networking opportunities.  Agriculture used to be the principal foreign exchange earner of Nigeria.  There are three distinct systems of law in Nigeria: The Nigerian military is charged with protecting the Federal Republic of Nigeria, promoting Nigeria's global security interests, and supporting peacekeeping efforts, especially in West Africa. This satellite was launched into orbit from a military base in China. On 27 July 2007 Nigeria's President Umaru Yar'Adua urged the country to embrace nuclear power in order to meet its growing energy needs. Many French speakers from surrounding countries have influenced the English spoken in the border regions of Nigeria and some Nigerian citizens have become fluent enough in French to work in the surrounding countries. , Many other species native to Nigeria, including Soybean and its varieties, serve as an important source of oil and protein in this region. A significant Shia minority exists (see Shia in Nigeria). Gently undulating plains, which become waterlogged during the rainy season, are found in these areas. Nigeria's national basketball team made the headlines internationally when it qualified for the 2012 Summer Olympics as it beat heavily favoured world elite teams such as Greece and Lithuania. Nigeria is located in western Africa. , A changing legal imperative (transatlantic slave trade outlawed by Britain in 1807) and economic imperative (a desire for political and social stability) led most European powers to support the widespread cultivation of agricultural products, such as the palm, for use in European industry. In 1900, the company's territory came under the direct control of the British government and established the Southern Nigeria Protectorate as a British protectorate and part of the British Empire, the foremost world power at the time.  Lagos has become an important location for African and "black" cultural identity. Nigeria poverty rates have gone down significantly in the last few years, because of economic growth. The capital is Abuja. The major drainage areas in Nigeria are the Niger-Benue basin, the Lake Chad basin, and the Gulf of Guinea basin. , In April 2016, more than 500 people in ten villages in predominantly Christian areas in Agatu were murdered by Fulani herdsmen.  In the southeast stands the Obudu Plateau. Having made their own plans to reduce this number, The Federal Republic of Nigeria has presented a plan to lower this number tremendously to the World Bank Group. Nigeria is a country with a large population which is located in the continent/region of Africa. Owobi Angrew, "Tiptoeing Through A Constitutional Minefield: The Great Sharia Controversy in Nigeria", Rais Akhtar; Health Care Patterns and Planning in Developing Countries, Greenwood Press, 1991. p. 264. The far south is defined by its tropical rainforest climate, where annual rainfall is 60 to 80 inches (1,500 to 2,000 mm) a year. , Since 2000, Sino-Nigerian trade relations have risen exponentially. Notable musicians from Nigeria include: Sade Adu, King Sunny Adé, Onyeka Onwenu, Dele Sosimi, Adewale Ayuba, Ezebuiro Obinna, Ebenezer Obey, Femi Kuti, Lagbaja, Dr. Alban, Bola Abimbola, Tuface Idibia, Aṣa, Nneka, Wale, P Square, Wizkid, Skepta, Davido CB and D'Banj. In August 1993, Babangida finally kept his promise to relinquish power to a civilian government, but not before appointing Ernest Shonekan head of the Interim National Government. The latter nation sponsored and oversaw the construction of Nigeria's parliament buildings.. , Nigeria was the only country in Africa to have never eradicated polio, which it periodically exported to other African countries; Polio was cut 98% between 2009 and 2010. The French spoken in Nigeria may be mixed with some native languages but is mostly spoken like the French spoken in Benin. , Internationally, Nigeria is infamous for a form of bank fraud dubbed 419, a type of advance fee fraud (named after Section 419 of the Nigerian Penal Code) along with the "Nigerian scam", a form of confidence trick practised by individuals and criminal syndicates. To view just those ports with container liner service, follow the Shipping – by Map menu links. The Lake Chad basin and the coastal areas, including the Niger River delta and the western parts of the Sokoto region in the far northwest, are underlain by soft, geologically young sedimentary rocks. The characteristic landforms of the plateaus are high plains with broad, shallow valleys dotted with numerous hills or isolated mountains, called inselbergs; the underlying rocks are crystalline, although sandstones appear in river areas. There are 54 airports in Nigeria; the principal airports are Murtala Muhammed International Airport in Lagos and Nnamdi Azikiwe International Airport in Abuja. In June 1903, the British defeated the remaining forces of Attahiru I and killed him; by 1906 resistance to British rule had ended. , Women also face a large amount of inequality Politically in Nigeria, being subjugated to a bias which is sexist and reinforced by socio-cultural, economic and oppressive ways. Concord Press, Ikeja, Lagos. Aside from plant invaders, Rattus rattus and Avian influenza virus were also considered IAS in Nigeria. , Due to overexploitation, the remaining natural ecosystems and primary forests in Nigeria are restricted to the protected areas which include one biosphere reserve, seven national parks, one World Heritage site, 12 Strict Nature Reserves (SNRs), 32 game reserves/wildlife sanctuaries, and hundreds of forest reserves. , Ethnocentrism, tribalism, religious persecution, and prebendalism have plagued Nigerian politics both prior and subsequent to independence in 1960. Invasive Alien Species. Under the Shari'a penal code that applies to Muslims in twelve northern states, offences such as alcohol consumption, homosexuality, infidelity and theft carry harsh sentences, including amputation, lashing, stoning and long prison terms.  Early marriages can result in fistula. From independence, Nigeria has tried to develop a domestic nuclear industry for energy.  Kin-selective altruism has made its way into Nigerian politics, resulting in tribalist efforts to concentrate Federal power to a particular region of their interests through..  In May 2014 Benin, Chad, Cameroon and Niger joined Nigeria in a united effort to combat Boko Haram in the aftermath of the 2014 Chibok kidnapping of 276 schoolgirls. They won the African Cup of Nations in 1980, 1994, and 2013, and have also hosted the U-17 & U-20 World Cup.  Fiscal year 2016 was characterized by currency depreciation and the attendant higher prices of petroleum products, electricity, and imported foods pushed inflation to 18.55% in December 2016 from 9.55% in December 2015. Nigeria, officially known as the Federal Republic of Nigeria, is a country that is located on the western coast of Africa. Islam dominates North Western (Hausa, Fulani and others) and a good portion of Northern Eastern (Kanuri, Fulani and other groups) Nigeria. Tension rose between North and South; Igbos in Northern cities suffered persecution and many fled to the Eastern Region. By the middle of the 20th century, a great wave for independence was sweeping across Africa.  Nigeria had a 2019 Forest Landscape Integrity Index mean score of 6.2/10, ranking it 82nd globally out of 172 countries.. Nigeria has had a huge role in the development of various genres of African music, including West African highlife, Afrobeat, Afrobeats, and palm-wine music, which fuses native rhythms with techniques that have been linked to the Congo, Brazil, Cuba, Jamaica and worldwide. The 30-month war, with a long siege of Biafra and its isolation from trade and supplies, ended in January 1970. Since the populations were partially affiliated with the Arab Muslim culture of North Africa, they started to trade and be referred to by the Arabic speakers as Al-Sudan (meaning "The Blacks") as they were considered an extended part of the Muslim world. It is bordered by four countries. For other uses, see, Not to be confused with the neighbouring country, Independence and First Republic (1960–1966), Civilian rule and Second Republic (1979–1983), Military rule and Third Republic (1983–1999), Democratization and Fourth Republic (1999–present), CS1 maint: multiple names: authors list (. Fuji music, a Yoruba percussion style, was created and popularised by Mr. Fuji, Alhaji Sikiru Ayinde Barrister. , In May 1967, Governor of the Eastern Region Lt. There are small minorities of British, American, Indian, Chinese (est. Nigeria . The Edo area is composed predominantly of members of the Pentecostal Assemblies of God, which was introduced into Nigeria by Augustus Ehurie Wogu and his associates at Old Umuahia. A comprehensive approach strategy was extended to all areas of health care, with subsequent improvement in the health care indicators and improvement in health care efficiency and cost. After that illegal smugglers purchased slaves along the coast by native slavers. At independence, the cultural and political differences were sharp among Nigeria's dominant ethnic groups: the Hausa–Fulani ('Northerners'), Igbo ('Easterners') and Yoruba ('Westerners'). It is habitat for the drill monkey, which is found in the wild only in this area and across the border in Cameroon.  In addition, The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints, the Aladura Church, the Seventh-day Adventist and various indigenous churches have also experienced growth.. Some of the more prolific slave trading kingdoms who participated in the transatlantic slave trade were linked with the Edo's Benin Empire in the south, Oyo Empire in the southwest, and the Aro Confederacy in the southeast. This name was coined on January 8, 1897, by British journalist Flora Shaw, who later married Lord Lugard, a British colonial administrator. At the beginning of the 19th century, Usman dan Fodio led a successful jihad against the Hausa Kingdoms founding the centralised Sokoto Caliphate (also known as the Fulani Empire). Its coast lies on the Gulf of Guinea in the south and it borders Lake Chad to the northeast. The oldest signs of human settlement at Ife's current site date back to the 9th century, and its material culture includes terracotta and bronze figures. Lagos has a variety of hotels ranging from three-star to five-star hotels, with a mixture of local hotels such as Eko Hotels and Suites, Federal Palace Hotel and franchises of multinational chains such as Intercontinental Hotel, Sheraton, and Four Points by Hilton.  The initial entry of IAS into Nigeria was mainly through exotic plant introductions by the colonial rulers either for forest tree plantations or for ornamental purposes. The highest point in Nigeria is Chappal Waddi at 2,419 m (7,936 ft). Hausa is the most widely spoken of the three main languages spoken in Nigeria itself.  In 2012, Nigeria was estimated to have lost over $400 billion to corruption since independence. Between 1990 and 2005, in total Nigeria lost 35.7% of its forest cover, or around 6,145,000 hectares. After negotiations by the Nigerian authorities, in October 2005 Nigeria and its Paris Club creditors reached an agreement under which Nigeria repurchased its debt at a discount of approximately 60%. The three largest ethnic groups are the Hausa, Yoruba and Igbo, together accounting for more than 70% of the population, while the Edo, Ijaw, Fulɓe, Kanuri, Urhobo-Isoko, Ibibio, Ebira, Nupe, Gbagyi, Jukun, Igala, Idoma and Tiv comprise between 25 and 30%; other minorities make up the remaining 5%.  Cocoa is the leading non-oil foreign exchange earner. The railways have undergone a massive revamping with projects such as the Lagos-Kano Standard Gauge Railway being completed connecting northern cities of Kano, Kaduna, Abuja, Ibadan and Lagos. B.E.B. The areas surrounding Calabar, Cross River State, also in this forest, are believed to contain the world's largest diversity of butterflies. As of 2012[update], the HIV prevalence rate among adults ages 15–49 was just 3.1 percent. Nigeria retains membership in the Non-Aligned Movement. Lagos is the largest city in Africa, with a population of over 12 million in its urban area.. Countries near Nigeria include Cameroon, Benin, Equatorial Guinea and Togo.  The savannah zone's three categories are Guinean forest-savanna mosaic, Sudan savannah, and Sahel savannah. – Britannica Online Encyclopedia", "Young Nigerians are connecting with Pentecostal churches. The Nigerian Military consists of an army, a navy, and an air force.  Nigeria has been home to numerous internationally recognised basketball players in the world's top leagues in America, Europe and Asia. While many international oil companies have operated there for decades, by 2014 most were making moves to divest their interests, citing a range of issues including oil theft. The name Nigeria was taken from the Niger River running through the country. Breunig, Peter. It was equipped with 0.3 megapixel and 5 megapixel cameras, and with the rest of the satellite fleet took images of Nigeria. Although these soils can readily be leached and lose their fertility, they are the most productive agriculturally. The 1963 census indicated that 47% of Nigerians were Muslim, 34% Christian, and 18% members of local indigenous religions.  Following the bloody civil war, nationalism has seen an increase in the southern part of the country leading to active secessionist movements such as the Oodua Peoples Congress (OPC) and the Movement for the Actualization of the Sovereign State of Biafra (MASSOB), though these groups are largely small and not representative of the entire ethnic group. Their dominance reached as far as the city of Eko (an Edo name later changed to Lagos by the Portuguese) and further. , Nigeria is the most populous country in Africa and the seventh most populous country in the world, with an estimated 206 million inhabitants as of late 2019.  Nigeria has been reorganising its health system since the Bamako Initiative of 1987, which formally promoted community-based methods of increasing accessibility of drugs and health care services to the population, in part by implementing user fees. French may also be mixed with English as it is in Cameroon. He looted money to offshore accounts in western European banks and defeated coup plots by arresting and bribing generals and politicians. A visiting Nigerian Senator reported that all the primary and post-primary schools, health centres, worship centres as well as the police station in the area were destroyed. He went on to win the elections, with the international media reporting the elections as having run smoothly with relatively little violence or voter fraud, in contrast to previous elections. The only breakdown available was by gender: males numbered 71,709,859, females numbered 68,293,008. Nicole Rupp, Peter Breunig & Stefanie Kahlheber, ".  130 Fulani adults and children were massacred in the Kaduna State in February 2019. Get exclusive access to content from our 1768 First Edition with your subscription. In late November 2006, it organised an Africa-South America Summit in Abuja to promote what some attendees termed "South-South" linkages on a variety of fronts. The Nok civilization of Nigeria flourished between 1,500 BC and AD 200. The education system is divided into Kindergarten, primary education, secondary education and tertiary education. The soils in the northern states of Kano and Sokoto, however, are not subject to leaching and are therefore easily farmed. His successor, General Abdulsalami Abubakar, adopted a new constitution on 5 May 1999 which provided for multiparty elections. Local authorities take responsibility for implementing policy for state-controlled public education and state schools at a regional level. The UNHCR representative said in 20 years of work, she had "never seen such a level of destruction".  The coup in July 1975, led by Generals Shehu Musa Yar'Adua and Joseph Garba ousted Gowon, who fled to Britain. Learn more about Lagos here. In the northeast, the decline of the Bornu Empire gave rise to the British-controlled Borno Emirate which established Abubakar Garbai of Borno as the ruler. The capital city is Abuja. It supported movements against white minority governments in the Southern Africa sub-region. Nigeria has been home to several indigenous pre-colonial states and kingdoms since the second millennium BC, with the Nok Civilization having been the first time the country had been unified internally in the 15th Century B.C. Nigeria is bordered by the Gulf of Guinea, Benin to the west, Niger to the north, and Chad and Cameroon to the east. Since the 1990s, there has been significant growth in many other churches, independently started in Africa by Africans, particularly the evangelical Protestant ones. By the end of 2017, there were around 4,000 players in more than 100 clubs in the country. It is estimated that over a million Nigerians have emigrated to the United States and constitute the Nigerian American populace. These minorities mostly reside in major cities such as Lagos and Abuja, or in the Niger Delta as employees for the major oil companies.  One exception to the African focus was Nigeria's close relationship developed with Israel throughout the 1960s. ", "Buhari and Ouattara make Eco heart of regional power struggle", "West Africa's new currency could now be delayed by five years", "Constitution amendment: What the people want", "Constitutional review: Nigeria needs broader representation", "Nigeria gives census result, avoids risky details", "Regions Used to Interpret the Complexity of Nigeria", "The Human and Physical Characteristics of Nigeria", "Early Growth Assessment of Selected Exotic and Indigenous Tree Species in Nigeria", "Evaluation of new generations of maize streak virus (msv) resistant varieties for grain yield, agronomic potential and adaptation to a southern guinea savanna ecology of Nigeria", "Air Pollution tolerance indices (apti) of some plants around Otorogun Gas Plant in Delta State, Nigeria", 10.1639/0044-7447(2002)031[0055:wmatfe]2.0.co;2, "Assessment of blood lead levels among children aged ≤ 5 years—Zamfara State, Nigeria, June–July 2012", "5. Around 42.5% of the population were 14 years or younger, 19.6% were aged 15–24, 30.7% were aged 25–54, 4.0% aged 55–64, and 3.1% aged 65 years or older. With the majority of Nigeria's populace in the rural areas, the major languages of communication in the country remain indigenous languages. In 1885, British claims to a West African sphere of influence received recognition from other European nations at the Berlin Conference.  In 2013, Nigeria introduced a policy regarding import duty on vehicles to encourage local manufacturing companies in the country. In the precolonial period the country normally produced enough agricultural commodities to feed its population, and it even maintained a surplus for export. The word is likely an alteration of the Tuareg name egerew n-igerewen used by inhabitants along the middle reaches of the river around Timbuktu prior to 19th-century European colonialism.. 259 ] [ 260 ] in 2013, Nigeria was ranked 21st in the FIFA world,. 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